Fine Motor Milestones

2-6 months

  • grasps a rattle, holds bottle with both hands
  • pulls at clothes
  • reaches, pulls objects to mouth

6-9 months

  • bangs objects on table
  • transfers cube hand to hand
  • feeds self finger food

9-15 months

  • marks paper with crayon
  • puts 3 or more objects into a container
  • builds tower using two cubes
  • drinks from a cup
  • feeds self with a spoon

15-18 months

  • finger-thumb pincer grasp
  • scribblings, draws line
  • builds tower of four cubes, puts four rings on stick
  • removes socks
  • turns knobs

2-3 years

  • undresses self and assists with dressing
  • copies a circle and a cross
  • strings four large beads
  • turns single page
  • snips with scissors on a line
  • buttons/unbuttons large buttons

4-5 years

  • copies a square
  • prints own name- tripod pencil grasp
  • ties shoelaces
  • cuts on line continuously
  • prints some capital letters

6 years

  • copies a triangle
  •  cuts out simple shapes
  • copies first name
  • prints numerals 1-5
  • color within lines
  • pastes and glues appropriately

Gross Motor Milestones

0-3 months

  • Lying on tummy, pushes up on arms for 3 seconds

  • Lying on tummy, lifts and holds head up

  • Bears weight in supported standing for 3 seconds

  • Moves fists from closed to open

  • Brings hands to mouth

  • Moves legs and arms off of surface when excited

4-6 months

  • Reaches for toys while on tummy

  • Lying on back, transfers toy from one hand to the other

  • Lying on back, reaches both hands to play with feet

  • Lying on tummy, pushes up on forearms (4 months) and hands (6 months)

  • Uses hands to support self while sitting

  • Rolls from back to tummy and tummy to back

  • While standing with support, accepts entire weight with legs

  • In sitting, rotates head from left to right and right to left while holding head up

7-9 months

  • Sits without support

  • Sits and reaches for toys without falling

  • Moves from tummy or back into sitting

  • Starts to move with alternating leg and arm movement (creeping, crawling)

  • Picks up head and pushes through elbows during “tummy time”

  • Turns head to visually track objects while sitting

  • Shows more control while rolling and sitting

  • Picks up small objects with thumbs and fingers

  • Imitates others during simple play

10-12 months

  • Releases objects into a container with a large opening

  • Uses thumb and pointer finger to pick up tiny objects

  • Pulls to stand and cruises along furniture

  • Pivots 180 degrees in sitting

  • Stands alone and takes several independent steps

  • Moves in and out of various positions to explore environment and get desired toys

  • Maintains balance in sitting when throwing objects

  • Claps hands

13-18 months (1-1.5 years)

  • Walks independently and seldom falls
  • Walks downstairs using railing and with 1 or both feet on each step
  • Walks backward 5 steps
  • Maintains balance while kneeling
  • Squats to pick up a toy
  • Stacks two objects or blocks
  • Catches ball rolled to legs in sitting
  • Rolls ball from between legs back to person
  • Throws ball in any direction by extending their arm
  • Kicks ball 3 feet forward

19-24 months (1.5-2 years)

  • Begins to run for 10 or more feet
  • Climbs stairs using railing
  • Kicks ball 3 feet forward within 45 degrees of their intended target

2-3 years

  • Jumps off low step
  • Stands on 1 foot for 3 seconds
  • Begins to ride tricycle
  • Kicks small ball
  • Throws ball overhand

3 years

  • Demonstrates true run (both feet leave ground)

  • Stands on 1 foot for 5 seconds

  • Stands tandem (one foot in front of the other) without losing balance

  • Catches large ball with trapping motion

  • Walks up stairs alternating feet

  • Walks down stairs while marking time

  • Jumps off step

  • Jumps over 2-inch object

3.5 years

  • Can hop a few steps on their preferred foot

  • Runs with greater balance and control

  • Kicks a ball

  • Mounts, pedals, and dismounts 3-wheel riding vehicle (tricycle)

4 years

  • Walks down stairs alternating feet

  • Gallops

  • Stands on tiptoes

  • Rotation of body following throw of a ball

  • Pumps a swing

  • Walks on a line/beam forwards

  • Can hop on one foot 4-6 times

  • Throws ball 10 feet forward

4.5 years

  • Catches ball if prepared

  • Bounces a ball off the floor then the wall when demonstrated

  • Hits large target from 12 feet away with a ball

  • Jumps 2-3 inches

  • Leans forward when jumping from a height

5 years

  • Can stop and change directions quickly when running

  • Stands on one foot for 10 seconds

  • Can hop 8-10 steps on 1 foot

  • Throws ball and hits target at 10 feet

  • Roller skates

  • Rides bike

  • Bounces a ball

  • Jumps 2-3 feet forward

6 years

  • Able to skip

  • Catches bounced tennis ball with 1 hand

  • Kicks a ball for at least a 12 foot distance

  • Completes 5 sit ups in less than 30 seconds

  • Can complete 8 push-ups in under 20 seconds

  • Rides a bicycle (no training wheels)

7 years

  • Safely performs a forward roll

  • Runs smoothly with opposite arm and leg movement and a narrow base of support (feet are close but not touching)

  • Runs around obstacles and maintains balance

  • Steps with opposite leg when using throwing arm to throw a ball

  • Jumps over an object and lands with both feet together

  • Walks backwards heel-to-toe

  • Rides a bicycle for an unlimited time

8-9 years

  • Jumps rope skillfully

  • Throws and bats a ball with more skill

10-16 years

  • Jumping distance & running speed continue to increase and eventually stabilize

  • Plays ball more skillfully due to improved reaction time

  • May reach fastest reaction time & peak performance level in sports

Receptive Language Milestones

7 months-1 year

  • turns and looks in the direction of sounds
  • listens when spoken to
  • recognizes words for common items like "cup", "shoe", "juice"
  • responds to name
  • begins to respond to simple requests ("come here", "sit down")
  • smiles when smiled at and can follow eye gaze

1-2 years

  • points to a few body parts
  • follows 1-2 step directions and understands simple questions ("roll the ball", "kiss the baby", "go get your shoes")
  • listens to simple stories, songs, and rhymes
  • identifies an object in a picture book
  • points to pictures in a book when named
  • points to a few body parts when asked

2-3 years

  • hears when you call from another room
  • answers simple "who?", "what?", "where?", "why?" questions
  • follows 2-3 step directions
  • understands concepts "inside", "under", "on top"
  • points to 5-6 parts of a doll when asked

3-4 years

  • understands differences in meaning ("go-stop", "in-on", "big-little", "up-down")
  • follows 2 requests ("Get your shoes and put them on")
  • understands action words ("jump, run, wash") and descriptive words ("big, wet, little")
  • matches objects to pictures

4-5 years

  • pays attention to short stories and answers simple questions
  • hears and understands spatial concepts (under, in back of, in front of)
  • makes inferences from pictures and stories
  • understands and able to produce rhyming words
  • can clap out multi-syllable words

Expressive Language Milestones

7 months- 1 year

  • babbling with both long and short groups of sounds "dada upup"
  • uses speech or non-crying sounds to get and keep attention
  • imitates different speech sounds
  • has 1 or 2 words (bye-bye, mama)
  • enjoys games like peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake
  • joint attention
  • reacts to emotions

1-2 years

  • says mroe words every month
  • uses some 1-2 word questions (where kitty? go bye-bye?)
  • puts 2 words together (more cookie, no juice, mommy book)
  • uses many different consonant sounds at the beginning of words
  • points to objects to get others engaged (joint attention)
  • plays near other children, begin to imitate
  • greets others, takes turns
  • brings objects to adult, requests action with words/gestures

2-3 years

  • has a word for almost everything (50-200 words)
  • uses 2-3 words to talk about and ask for things
  • speech is understood by familiar listeners most of the time
  • often asks for or directs attention to objects by naming them
  • acts out simple themes from own experience
  • talks to self during play

3-4 years

  • talks about activities completed earlier from school or home
  • people outside the family understand the child's speech
  • uses a lot of sentences that have 4 or more words
  • usually talks easily without repeating syllables or words
  • cooperative play begins
  • begins to share and show empathy and emotions
  • able to maintain a topic

4-5 years

  • says most sounds correctly except l, s, r, v, z, j, ch, sh, th
  • uses the same grammar as the rest of family
  • uses sentences that give lots of details (I like to read my books)
  • tells stories that stick to topic
  • communicates easily with other children and adults
  • understand that other people have thoughts

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